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Maryland, United States

Exploring the relationship between sociodemographic factors and opioid use in the All of Us Research Program

The study aims to estimate the prevalence of opioid use and its association with sociodemographic characteristics using survey and electronic health record (EHR) data from the All of Us Research Program. The program enrolls diverse US participants, providing a unique opportunity to better understand the problem of opioid use.


  • The lifetime prevalence of street opioid use was 4% and non-medical use of prescription opioids was 9%.
  • Men had higher odds of lifetime opioid use (aOR: 1.4 to 3.1), but lower odds of current non-medical use of prescription opioids (aOR: 0.6).
  • Participants from other racial and ethnic groups had reduced odds of lifetime use (aOR: 0.2 to 0.9) but increased odds of current use (aOR: 1.9 to 9.9) compared with non-Hispanic white participants.
  • Foreign-born participants had a reduced risk of opioid use and diagnosis of opioid use disorder (OUD) compared with US-born participants (aOR: 0.36 to 0.67).
  • Men, younger, white, and US-born participants were more likely to have OUD.
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Data from the All of Us study can be used as an indicator of national trends to monitor the prevalence of prescription opioid receipt, diagnosis of OUD, and non-medical use of opioids in the United States. The programme uses a longitudinal design for the routine collection of health-related data, including EHR data, which will contribute to the literature by providing important clinical information on opioids over time. In addition, these data will improve estimates of the prevalence of OUD among diverse populations, including groups underrepresented in national survey data.

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